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World History Patterns of Interaction

Uploaded by xLoves a xRiSKx on Oct 12, 2006

Main Ideas:
Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms

9. Gregory I has broadened the authority of the papacy (pope’s office), beyond its spiritual role by making the papacy a secular (power involved in politics). Gregory used church revenues to raise armies, repair roads, and help the poor. He also negotiated peace treaties with invaders such as the Lombards. He strengthened the vision of Christendom by fanning out of Rome to the most distant churches. The new idea of having a churchly kingdom, ruled by a pope, would be a central theme of the Middle Ages. Meanwhile, secular rulers expanded their political kingdoms.

10. Charles Martel extended the Franks’ reign to the north, south, and east. He defeated Muslim raiders from Spain at the Battle of Tours and it was highly significant for Christian Europeans. This victory has made him a Christian hero and has become the most powerful person in the Frankish kingdom.

11. In Charlemagne’s gratitude of crushing an unruly mob that had attacked the pope, Pope Leo III crowned him emperor. He had claimed the political right to confer the title “Roman Emperor” on a European king. This event signaled the joining of Germanic power, the Church, and the heritage of the Roman Empire.

Feudalism in Europe

12. From about 800 to 1,000, invasions destroyed the Carolingian Empire. Muslim invaders from the south seized Sicily and raided Italy. In 846, they sacked Rome, and later on Magyar invaders struck from the east. Like the earlier Huns and Avars they terrorized Germany and Italy. And from the north came the fearsome Vikings.

13. Under feudalism, in exchange for military protection and other services, a lord, or landowner, granted land called a fief. The person receiving a fief was called a vassal.

14. The manor system rested on a set of rights and obligations between a lord and his serfs. The lord provided the serfs with housing, farmland, and protection from bandits. In return, serfs tended the lord’s lands, cared for his animals, and performed other tasks to maintain the estate. Peasant women shared in the farm work with their husbands. All peasants whether free or serf owned the lord certain duties. These included at least a few days of labor each week and a certain portion of their grain.

The Age of Chivalry

15. At a very young age, sons of nobles would begin training for knighthood and learn the code of chivalry. The boy would be sent off to the...

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Uploaded by:   xLoves a xRiSKx

Date:   10/12/2006

Category:   History

Length:   5 pages (1,038 words)

Views:   3889

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